Documentation / Smart Contracts / The Callback Pattern

The Callback Pattern

Using and implementing the standardized callback pattern in your smart contracts.

The Kujira ecosystem encourages developers to integrate a standardized callback pattern, fostering composability among smart contracts. The callback pattern consists of two arbitrary binary data snippets:

  1. A callback Binary, which contains data from the original contract (contract A) that will be passed back to contract A unchanged in the callback.
  2. A data Binary, which contains data from contract B about its execution, such as return values, modified parameters, and created IDs. Contract A must know the binary ABI of this field that contract B serializes to so that it can correctly deserialize and access the values within.

When contract B executes a callback, it runs an ExecuteMsg::Callback(CallbackMsg) call on contract A.

Creating Contracts with Callbacks

To create a contract that utilizes callbacks, you first need to create a message to execute the contract with the desired callback. Here’s a simplified example of invoking a contract with a callback:

enum CallbackType {
    CallbackA { ... },
    CallbackB { ... },

let msg = CosmosMsg::Wasm(WasmMsg::Execute {
    contract_addr: config.other_contract_addr.to_string(),
    funds: config.example_token.coins(&example_amount),
    msg: to_binary(&ExampleExecute {
        some_parameter: value,
        callback: Some(
            to_binary(&CallbackType::CallbackA {
                custom_data: msg.custom_data,


This example demonstrates how to initiate the execution of a contract with a callback. In this case, the ExampleExecute message includes an optional callback parameter, which stores the binary data that will be passed back to contract A. We define the CallbackType enum to represent the different types of callbacks that contract A can receive, but this can be any arbitrary serializable data structure.

Handling Callbacks

To properly handle a callback within your contract, you can use pattern matching to determine the type of callback and process it accordingly. Here’s a simplified example:

// in execute():
match msg {
    // Removed other ExecuteMsg variants for brevity...,
    ExecuteMsg::Callback(cb_msg) => {
        let cb_msg = cb_msg.deserialize_callback()?;
        match cb_msg {
            CallbackType::CallbackA { custom_data } => { ... },
            CallbackType::CallbackB { ... } => { ... },
            // Other callback types can be added here...

In this example, the Callback variant of the ExecuteMsg enum is matched and processed based on its specific type. If the Data ABI is known, you can deserialize the data using deserialize_data method as shown below:

let data: YourKnownType = cb_msg.deserialize_data()?;

For example, submitting orders to the FIN orderbook contracts will return the kujira::fin::NewOrderData struct in the callback data.

Note: It is very important to verify the sender of the callback message. If you do not, you may be vulnerable to unauthorized callbacks. You can do this by checking the sender field of the info parameter in the execute function.

Enabling Callback Handling in Your Contract

To enable your contract to handle callbacks requested by others, you can add an optional callback parameter to your execute messages:

pub enum ExecuteMsg {
    // Other parameters removed for brevity...
    DoSomething { ..., callback: Option<CallbackData> }

Next, you handle the callback as shown below:

struct ArbitraryReturnData {
    idx: Uint128,
// Here we also handle sending funds alongside the callback.
// If there is no callback, we can send the funds as a BankMsg.
let return_msg = match msg.callback {
    Some(callback) => callback
        .to_message(&info.sender, ArbitraryReturnData {...}, coins(100, "ukuji"))
    None => // Send funds as BankMsg...

Remember that you can use cosmwasm_std::Empty{} for a callback with no return data:

let return_msg = match msg.callback {
    Some(callback) => callback
        .to_message(&info.sender, Empty{}, coins(100, "ukuji"))
    None => // Send funds as BankMsg...